To measure radiation it must be absorbed. The absorption is higher as more dens the absorber material is. There  are gas filled ionisation chambers or Geiger tubes available but the most sensitive is a crystal of NaJ with a  density of 3.7 g/cm3. This crystal produces a small light flashes when exposed to radiation which must  be detected by a light amplifier called photo-multiplier. The whole detector must be build in a mechanical protection  and light tight housing and also stabelized against any changes.

The two sources of radiation have to be shielded in lead containers to prevent the rays to travell in all directions.  By a thin channel it is ensured that only in one direction the working beam is allowed to come out. The radiation  is measured by a scintillation counter which is the most sensitive detector available for industrial applications.  Both, source and detector, is called measuring path. Two measuring pathes are necessary for ash determination.  It would be possible to use only one detector for both radiations but because physically in the detector each radiations  influences the other it is more reliable to use separate ones.







Either source or detector can be installed above or underneeth the belt. The measuring pathes should have a  distance of 1 m minimum to each other. A firm mechnical frame is needed to prevent changes of the distance between  source and detector: It must be absolutelly constant to avoid measuring errors.

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